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Anthocyanidins are common plant pigments, the sugar-free counterparts of anthocyanins. They are based on the flavylium cation, an oxonium ion, with various groups substituted for its hydrogen atoms. They generally change color from red through the purple, blue, and bluish green as a function of pH.


Antioxidants are compounds that inhibit oxidation. Oxidation is a chemical reaction that can produce free radicals, thereby leading to chain reactions that may damage the cells of organisms. Antioxidants help terminate these chain reactions. To balance oxidative stress, plants and animals maintain complex systems of antioxidants, and many herbs are an excellent source of antioxidants.


Is the traditional Hindu system of medicine, which is based on the idea of balance in bodily systems and uses diet, herbal treatment, and yogic breathing.


Herbs are vegetables and in general use, herbs are plants with savory or aromatic properties that are used for flavoring and garnishing food, for medicinal purposes, or for fragrances; excluding vegetables and other plants consumed for macronutrients. Culinary use typically distinguishes herbs from spices. Herbs generally refer to the leafy green or flowering parts of a plant, while spices are usually dried and produced from other parts of the plant, including seeds, bark, roots, and fruits.


A broad term pertaining to, made from or containing plants.


Procyanidin flavonoids are believed to help reduce the risk of various neurodegenerative and cardiovascular diseases. In yeast cells, procyanidin has been observed to increase life spans by as much as 80%. In humans, procyanidins have been shown to reduce LDL cholesterol, raise HDL cholesterol, and lower overall cholesterol levels. These compounds are also believed to stimulate healthy endothelium in the heart and blood vessels.


Resveratrol is a type of natural phenol, produced by several plants in response to injury or when the plant is under attack by pathogens, such as bacteria or fungi.  It is a powerful antioxidant produced by some plants to protect themselves against environmental stresses. Antioxidants neutralize free radicals, which are believed to be the cause of premature aging.


Polyphenols are micronutrients that we get through certain plant-based foods. They are packed with antioxidants and potential health benefits. It is thought that polyphenols can improve or help treat digestion issues, weight management difficulties, diabetes, neurodegenerative disease, and cardiovascular diseases. Many of the health benefits associated with polyphenols may be related to their role as antioxidants. Antioxidants are known for their ability to combat cell damage.


Nootropics (colloquial: smart drugs and cognitive enhancers) are drugs, supplements, and other substances that may improve cognitive function, particularly executive functions, memory, creativity, or motivation, in healthy individuals. While many substances are purported to improve cognition, research is at a preliminary stage as of 2020, and the effects of most of these agents are not fully determined.

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